# Class PendulumSim

Simulation of a pendulum driven by an optional periodic torque force.

## Variables and Parameters

The 'bob' (point mass) at the end of a massless rod is suspended from a fixed point. We use coordinate system with `y` increasing upwards. The fixed anchor point is at the origin.

Variables:

• `th` = angle formed with vertical, positive is counter clockwise
• `v` = velocity of angle `= th'`

Parameters:

• `m` = mass of bob
• `g` = gravity constant
• `L` = length of rod
• `b` = friction constant
• `A` = amplitude of driving force
• `k` = determines frequency of driving force

The position of the pendulum is given by `U` = position of center of mass

``````Ux = L sin(th)
Uy = -L cos(th)
``````

We set the radius of the arc that represents the driving force to be 0.5 times the amplitude `A`.

## Equations of Motion

The derivation of the equations of motion is shown at

Use the rotational analog of Newton's second law:

``````Σ torques = I a
``````

where `I` = rotational inertia, and `a = v'` = angular acceleration.

• Rotational inertia `I = m L^2`

• Torque due to gravity is `-L m g sin(th)`

• Torque due to friction is `-b v`

• Torque due to driving force is `A cos(w)` where `A` is constant amplitude and `w = k t` is a linear function of time.

Then `Σ torques = I a` becomes

``````-L m g sin(th) - b v + A cos(w) = m L^2 v'
``````

This can be rearranged to get the equations of motion (these are implemented in evaluate):

``````th' = v
v' = -(g / L) sin(th) -(b /m L^2) v + (A / m L^2) cos(k t)
``````

## Settings for Chaotic Pendulum

Compare our equations of motion to equation 3.1 in Chaotic Dynamics by Baker/Gollub (translated to equivalent variables):

``````v' = - sin(th) - v / q + A cos(k t)
``````

The range of chaos according to Baker/Gollub is: `q=2, 0.5<A<1.5, k=2/3.` If we have `m = L = g = 1`, then we need:

• L = 1.0 = rod length
• m = 1.0 = mass
• g = 1.0 = gravity
• A = 1.15 = drive amplitude
• k = 2.0/3.0 = drive frequency
• b = 1/q = 0.5 = damping

## Variables Array

The variables are stored in the VarsList as follows

``````vars[0] = th
vars[1] = v
vars[2] = time
vars[3] = th''  acceleration of angle
vars[4] = ke, kinetic energy
vars[5] = pe, potential energy
vars[6] = te, total energy
``````

TO DO add ParameterBoolean specifying whether to limit angles to +/-Pi.

## Properties

amplitude_: number = 1.15

amplitude of driving torque

drive_: Arc = ...

the Arc tracks the drive frequency and amplitude

frequency_: number = ...

frequency of driving torque

initialState_: null | number[] = null

Initial values.

limitAngle_: boolean = true

Whether to limit the pendulum angle to +/- Pi

pivot_: Vector = Vector.ORIGIN

location of pivot point

potentialOffset_: number = 0

potential energy offset

## Methods

• Adds the given Observer to this Subject's list of Observers, so that the Observer will be notified of changes in this Subject. An Observer may call `Subject.addObserver` during its `observe` method.

#### Returns void

• Adds the Parameter to the list of this Subject's available Parameters.

#### Throws

if a Parameter with the same name already exists.

• Notifies all Observers that the Parameter with the given name has changed by calling observe on each Observer.

#### Parameters

• ##### name: string

the language-independent or English name of the Parameter that has changed

#### Throws

if there is no Parameter with the given name

• Defines the differential equations of this ODESim; for an input set of variables, returns the current rate of change for each variable (the first derivative of each variable with respect to time).

The `timeStep` is the time since the state variables were last fully calculated, which can be and often is zero. The current time can be regarded as `getTime() + timeStep`. The input variables correspond to the Simulation state at that time. Note that `timeStep` is different from the time step used to advance the Simulation (as in AdvanceStrategy.advance). The `timeStep` is typically used when finding collisions in CollisionSim.findCollisions.

#### Parameters

• ##### vars: number[]

the current array of state variables (input), corresponding to the state at `getTime() + timeStep`

• ##### change: number[]

array of change rates for each variable (output), all values are zero on entry.

• ##### _timeStep: number

the current time step (might be zero)

#### Returns null | object

`null` if the evaluation succeeds, otherwise an object relating to the error that occurred. The `change` array contains the output results.

• Called at the end of a mouse drag operation, performs whatever action is appropriate. Only called if startDrag returned `true`.

#### Parameters

• ##### simObject: null | SimObject

the SimObject being dragged, or `null` if no SimObject was found

• ##### _location: Vector

the location of the mouse in simulation coordinates of the SimView where `simObject` was found, or in the focus view if `simObject` is `null`.

• ##### _offset: Vector

distance from the initial object position to the mouse location at start of drag.

#### Returns void

• Return amplitude of the rotating driving force

#### Returns number

amplitude of the rotating driving force

• Return frequency of the rotating driving force

#### Returns number

frequency of the rotating driving force

• Whether mouse drag is in progress

#### Returns boolean

Whether mouse drag is in progress

• Return whether we limit the pendulum angle to +/- Pi

#### Returns boolean

whether we limit the pendulum angle to +/- Pi

• Returns the Parameter with the given name.

#### Parameters

• ##### name: string

the language-independent or English name of the Parameter

#### Returns Parameter

the Parameter with the given name

#### Throws

if there is no Parameter with the given name

• Returns the ParameterBoolean with the given name.

#### Parameters

• ##### name: string

the language-independent or English name of the ParameterBoolean

#### Returns ParameterBoolean

the ParameterBoolean with the given name

#### Throws

if there is no ParameterBoolean with the given name

• Returns the ParameterNumber with the given name.

#### Parameters

• ##### name: string

the language-independent or English name of the ParameterNumber

#### Returns ParameterNumber

the ParameterNumber with the given name

#### Throws

if there is no ParameterNumber with the given name

• Returns the ParameterString with the given name.

#### Parameters

• ##### name: string

the language-independent or English name of the ParameterString

#### Returns ParameterString

the ParameterString with the given name

#### Throws

if there is no ParameterString with the given name

• Returns the current Simulation time.

#### Returns number

the current Simulation time.

#### Throws

if there is no time variable for the simulation

• Called when a key is pressed or released, performs whatever action is appropriate for that event.

#### Parameters

• ##### _evt: KeyboardEvent

the KeyboardEvent that happened

• ##### _pressed: boolean

`true` means this is a key-down event; `false` means a key-up event

• ##### _modifiers: ModifierKeys

the modifier keys down during event

#### Returns void

• Called at each movement during a mouse drag, performs whatever action is appropriate. Only called if startDrag returned `true`. The SimObject being moved is passed in, along with the current mouse position, in simulation coordinates, and an offset calculated at the start of the drag.

Setting the SimObject position to `(x - offsetX, y - offsetY)` will move the SimObject smoothly along with the mouse movement.

#### Parameters

• ##### simObject: null | SimObject

the SimObject being dragged, or `null` if no SimObject was found

• ##### location: Vector

the location of the mouse in simulation coordinates of the SimView where `simObject` was found, or in the focus view if `simObject` is `null`.

• ##### offset: Vector

distance from the initial object position (from DisplayObject.getPosition) to the mouse location at start of drag.

#### Returns void

• Removes the Observer from this Subject's list of Observers. An Observer may call `removeObserver` during its `observe` method.

#### Parameters

• ##### observer: Observer

the Observer to detach from list of Observers

#### Returns void

• Removes the Parameter from the list of this Subject's available Parameters.

#### Parameters

• ##### parameter: Parameter

the Parameter to remove

#### Returns void

• Sets whether this Subject will broadcast events, typically used to temporarily disable broadcasting. Intended to be used in situations where a subclass overrides a method that broadcasts an event. This allows the subclass to prevent the superclass broadcasting that event, so that the subclass can broadcast the event when the method is completed.

#### Parameters

• ##### value: boolean

whether this Subject should broadcast events

#### Returns boolean

the previous value

• Set damping factor

#### Parameters

• ##### value: number

damping factor

#### Returns void

• Set amplitude of the rotating driving force

#### Parameters

• ##### value: number

amplitude of the rotating driving force

#### Returns void

• Set frequency of the rotating driving force

#### Parameters

• ##### value: number

frequency of the rotating driving force

#### Returns void

• Set gravity strength.

#### Parameters

• ##### value: number

gravity strength

#### Returns void

• Set whether mouse drag is in progress

#### Parameters

• ##### value: boolean

whether mouse drag is in progress

#### Returns void

• Set length of pendulum rod

#### Parameters

• ##### value: number

length of pendulum rod

#### Returns void

• Set whether we limit the pendulum angle to +/- Pi

#### Parameters

• ##### value: boolean

whether we limit the pendulum angle to +/- Pi

#### Returns void

• Set mass of pendulum bob

#### Parameters

• ##### value: number

mass of pendulum bob

#### Returns void

• Sets the potential energy offset.

#### Parameters

• ##### value: number

the potential energy offset

#### Returns void

• Set location of pivot point

#### Returns void

• Sets the Terminal object that this simulation can print data into.

#### Parameters

• ##### terminal: null | Terminal

the Terminal object that this simulation can print data into.

#### Returns void

• Sets the VarsList for this simulation.

#### Parameters

• ##### varsList: VarsList

the VarsList to use in this simulation

#### Returns void

• Called at the start of a mouse drag. The nearest dragable SimObject is passed in, along with mouse position in simulation coordinates. If no dragable SimObject was found, `null` is passed for the first argument. If the EventHandler does not recognize the SimObject then it should return `false`.

#### Parameters

• ##### simObject: null | SimObject

the SimObject that is nearest to the mouse drag coordinates, or `null` if no SimObject was found

• ##### _location: Vector

the location of the mouse in simulation coordinates of the SimView where `simObject` was found, or in the focus view if `simObject` is `null`.

• ##### _offset: Vector

distance from the initial object position (from DisplayObject.getPosition) to the mouse location at start of drag

• ##### _dragBody: null | Vector

location of 'drag point' on the SimObject in body coordinates of the SimObject; this is where for example a spring will be attached on the SimObject when dragging; or `null` when no SimObject was found

• ##### _modifiers: ModifierKeys

the modifier keys down during event

#### Returns boolean

`true` if the EventHandler will handle dragging the SimObject

• Returns a minimal string representation of this object, usually giving just identity information like the class name and name of the object.

For an object whose main purpose is to represent another Printable object, it is recommended to include the result of calling `toStringShort` on that other object. For example, calling `toStringShort()` on a DisplayShape might return something like this:

``````DisplayShape{polygon:Polygon{'chain3'}}
``````

#### Returns string

a minimal string representation of this object.

Generated using TypeDoc